Tutorials

SAR POLARIMETRY: BASICS, PROCESSING TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATIONS

Prof. Dr.-Hab Eric Pottier, Dr. Jong-Sen Lee

Duration: Full-Day

Description of Tutorial:

Several space borne Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) systems are in operation since 2006: ALOS/PALSAR (L-band) launched in January 2006, TerraSAR-X (X-Band) launched in June 2007, and RADARSAT-2 (C-Band) launched in December 2007.

For the first time, the availability of spaceborne PolSAR data will provide an unprecedented opportunity for applying advanced PolSAR information processing techniques to the important tasks of environmental monitoring. PolSAR remote sensing offers an efficient and reliable means of collecting information required to extract geophysical and biophysical parameters from Earth's surface. This remote sensing technique has found many successful applications in crop monitoring and damage assessment, in forestry clear cut mapping, deforestation and burn mapping, in land surface structure (geology) land cover (biomass) and land use, in hydrology (soil moisture, flood delineation), in sea ice monitoring, in oceans and coastal monitoring (oil spill detection) etc.

SAR Polarimetry represents today a very active area of research in Radar Remote Sensing, and it becomes important to train and prepare the future generation of researchers to this very important topic.

The aim of this tutorial is to provide a substantial and balanced introduction to the basic theory, scattering concepts, systems and advanced concepts, and applications typical to radar polarimetric remote sensing. This tutorial on SAR polarimetry touches several subjects: basic theory, scattering modeling, data representations, target decompositions, speckle filtering, terrain and land-use classification, man-made target analysis, etc. This lecture will be illustrated by ALOS-PALSAR, TerraSAR-X and RADARSAT-2 polarimetric SAR images. The connection to polarimetric SAR interferometry will be also briefly reviewed.

This lecture is intended to scientists, engineers and students engaged in the fields of Radar Remote Sensing and interested in Polarimetric SAR image analysis and applications. Some background in SAR processing techniques and microwave scattering would be an advantage and familiarity in matrix algebra is required.

Outline:

1 - Overview of Imaging Radar Polarimetry
Brief History of Imaging Radar Polarimetry
Airborne and Spaceborne Polarimetric SAR Systems

2 - Electromagnetic Vector Wave and Polarization Descriptors
Monochromatic Electromagnetic Plane Wave, Polarization Ellipse
The Jones and Stokes Vectors, the Wave Covariance Matrix
Polarisation basis and Elliptical basis transformation
SU(2) and O(4) Unitary groups
Partially polarised waves and Wave Polarisation Decomposition (Born & Wolf)
Synthesis

3 - Electromagnetic Vector Scattering Operators
The Polarimetric Backscattering Sinclair Scattering S Matrix
The Scattering Target Vectors k and Ω
The Polarimetric Coherency T and Covariance C Matrices
The Polarimetric Mueller M and Kennaugh K matrices
Change of Polarimetric Basis
Target Polarimetric Characterization

4 - Polarimetric SAR Speckle Statistics and Filtering
Fundamental Property of Speckle in SAR Images
Speckle Statistics for Multi-look Processed SAR Images
Introduction to Speckle Filtering
Review of Single and Multi-Polarization Speckle Filtering Algorithms
Polarimetric SAR Speckle Filtering
Scattering Model Based PolSAR Speckle Filter

5 - Polarimetric Target Decomposition Concept
Introduction
Eigenvector-Based Decomposition (Cloude-Pottier)
Model-Based Decompositions (Freeman-Durden, Yamaguchi, Van Zyl)
Coherent Decompositions (Cameron, Krogager)

6 - PolSAR Terrain and Land-Use Classification
Maximum Likelihood Classifier Based on Complex Gaussian Distribution
Complex Wishart Classifier for Multi-look PolSAR Data
Supervised Classification Using Wishart Distance Measure
Unsupervised Classification Based on Scattering Mechanisms and Wishart Classifier
Scattering Model Based Unsupervised Classification
Quantitative Comparison of Classification Capability: Fully Polarimetric SAR versus Dual- and Single-Polarization SAR

7 - Pol-InSAR Forest Mapping and Classification
Pol-InSAR Scattering Descriptors
Forest Mapping and Forest Classification

8 - Selected Polarimetric SAR Applications
Polarimetric Signature Analysis of Manmade Structures
Polarization Orientation Angle Estimation and Applications
Ocean Surface Remote Sensing with Polarimetric SAR
Ionospheric Faraday Rotation Estimation

Material to be Distributed:

The material to be distributed will be composed by all the PowerPoint presentations employed in the tutorial.

About the Speakers

Prof. Dr.-Hab Eric POTTIER

eric.pottier@univ-rennes1.fr

Eric Pottier (IEEE M'95, SM'06, SEE SM'07) received the MSc (87) and Ph.D. (90) in " signal processing and telecommunication" from the University of Rennes 1 and defended his Habilitation from the University of Nantes in 1998 on the topic "Contribution to Radar Polarimetry : From Theoretical Approach to Applications."

From 1988 to 1999 he held an associate professor position at IRESTE -University of Nantes, France where he was the head of the Polarimetry Group of the Electronic and Informatic Systems laboratory.

Since 1999, he is full professor at the University of Rennes 1, France, where he is presently the Deputy Director of the Institute of Electronics and Telecommunications of Rennes (I.E.T.R - CNRS UMR 6164) - a staff of 300 Professors, Associate-Professors, Assistant-Professors, Researchers and PhD Students. He is also the Head of the SAPHIR team (SAr Polarimetry Holography Interferometry Radargrammetry) of the Image Processing and Remote Sensing Group.

His current activities of research and education are centered in the topics of analog electronics, microwave theory and radar imaging with emphasis in radar polarimetry.

His research covers a wide spectrum of areas in connection with a number of different applications of Radar and SAR data. His experience is within a number of disciplines related to processing and analysis of Radar data (ISAR Target Imaging, RCS analysis and reduction, scatterer fluctuating modelisation, scatterer time-frequency analysis, SAR system modelling and simulation) and POLSAR data (polarimetric speckle analysis and reduction, polarimetric segmentation, and classification, polarimetric theorem decomposition) to fundamentals and basic theory of polarimetry.

He has presented advances courses on Radar Polarimetry in the frame of the European TMR Project Radar Polarimetry : Theory and Applications and seminars to a wide range of organization (DLR, NASDA, JRC, RESTEC).

He was invited as a Keynote Speaker or gave Tutorials during the following symposiums: SPIE-1992, ISAP-2000, IGARSS-03, EUSAR-04, NATO RTA-04, POLINSAR-05, IGARSS-05, DRAGON Workshop 2005, NATO RTA-06, EUSAR-06, POLINSAR-07, ESA Advanced Training Course 2007, IGARSS-07, IGARSS-08, DRAGON-2 Advanced Training Course 2008, ESA Advanced Training Course 2009, IGARSS-09, EUSAR-10 and IGARSS-10.

Since 1989, he has supervised more than 60 research students to graduation (MSc and Ph.D) in Radar Polarimetry covering areas from theory to remote sensing applications.

He has chaired and organized 35 sessions in International Conferences. He has been invited to present 46 presentations in International Conferences or Seminars and 17 in National Conferences.

He has 7 publications in book chapters, more than 45 papers in refereed journals and more than 310 papers during International Conferences, Symposiums and Workshops.

He published a book co-authored with Dr. J.S. Lee entitled "Polarimetric Radar Imaging: From basics to applications", CRC Press, Taylor & Francis editor, 397 pages, (2009), ISBN: 978-1-4200-5497-2.

He received the Award for a Very Significant Contribution in the Field of Synthetic Aperture Radar during EUSAR-2000 for his research activities, co-authored with J.S. Lee (US Navy/NRL), in the topic of PolSAR unsupervised segmentation.

He received the Certificate Of Appreciation For Serving as Lecturer for NATO-RTO Lecture Series SET-081 in 2004. He was nominated as Associate Professor of Capital Normal University of Beijing (October 2005), as Invited Professor at I.N.R.S - ETE of Québec (2006 to 2012) and as Guest Professor of the State Key Laboratory of Information Engineering in Surveying, Mapping and Remote Sensing, University of Wuhan, Wuhan - PR China (2008).

He received the 2007 IEEE GRS-S Letters Prize Paper Award co-authored with S. Guillaso, L. Ferro-Famil and A. Reigber.

He is a recipient of the 2007 IEEE GRS-S Education Award "In recognition of his significant educational contributions to Geoscience and Remote Sensing".

Dr. Jong-Sen Lee

jong_sen_lee@yahoo.com

Jong-Sen Lee (M'69-SM'91-F'97-LF'05) received his PhD in engineering (control theory) and A.M. in applied mathematics from Harvard University in 1965 and 1969, respectively. After graduated from Harvard, he joined US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) as an electronics engineer. He retired in 2006 after 37 years service as the Head of the Image Science Section, Remote Sensing Division. Upon his retirement, he received the distinguished Navy Meritorious Civilian Service Award for his significant and sustained contributions toward SAR and polarimetric SAR research. Each year at NRL, only one or two researchers receive this distinguished award. From 2006 to the present, he is a Visiting Chair Professor, he has been lecturing at the Center for Space and Remote Sensing Research, National Central University, Chung-Li, Taiwan.

Dr. Lee's professional expertise encompasses Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and polarimetric SAR information processing including radar polarimetry, polarimetric SAR speckle statistics, speckle filtering, ocean remote sensing using polarimetric SAR, supervised and unsupervised polarimetric SAR terrain and land-use classification, digital image processing, radiative transfer, and control theory. He has contributed toward the pertinent current state-of-arts, and published more than 75 journal papers, six book chapters and more than 200 conference proceedings. These papers have been widely referenced as is reflected by the accumulated citation counts of a total greater than 3000 (compiled by Google Scholar on November 12, 2008). Jointly with Professor Eric Pottier, he completed a self-contained SAR remote sensing textbook entitled "Polarimetric Radar Imaging: From basics to Applications". Taylor and Francis (CRC) published the book in January 2009.

Dr. Lee is a Life Fellow of IEEE for his contribution toward information processing of SAR and polarimetric SAR imagery. At IGARSS2009, he received the IEEE GRS-S Distinguished Achievement Award. He was presented the Best Paper Award (jointly with E. Pottier) and the Best Poster Award (jointly with D. Schuler) at the Third and Fourth European Conference on Synthetic Aperture Radar (EUSAR2000 and EUSAR2002), respectively. A U.S. Patent entitled "Terrain Slope Measurement Using Polarimetric SAR" was granted to him in 1996, with co-recipient, Dale Schuler. He is an Associate Editor of the IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing.

Selected Publications:

Book:

J.S. LEE, E. POTTIER, "Polarimetric Radar Imaging: From basics to applications", CRC Press, Taylor & Francis editor, 397 pages, (2009), ISBN: 978-1-4200-5497-2.

Journals:

S.R. CLOUDE, E. POTTIER
A review of Target Decomposition in Radar Polarimetry
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol 34, n°2, pp 498-518, March 1996.

S.R. CLOUDE, E. POTTIER
An Entropy Based Classification Scheme for Land Applications of Polarimetric SAR
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol 35, n°1, pp 68-78, January 1997.

L. FERRO-FAMIL, E. POTTIER, J.S. LEE
Unsupervised Classification of Multi-Frequency and Fully Polarimetric SAR based on the H/A/a Wishart Classifier
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol 39, n° 11, pp 2332 - 2342, November 2001.

J.S. LEE, M.R. GRUNES, E. POTTIER
Quantitative Comparison of Classification Capability : Fully Polarimetric versus Multipolarisation SAR
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol 39, n° 11, pp 2343 - 2351, November 2001.

D. L. SCHULER, J. S. LEE, D. KASILINGAM, E. POTTIER
Measurement of ocean surface slopes and wave spectra using polarimetric SAR image data
Remote Sensing of Environment, Volume 91, Issue 2, 30 May 2004, Pages 198-211

J.S. LEE, M.R. GRUNES, E. POTTIER, L. FERRO-FAMIL
Unsupervised terrain classification preserving polarimetric scattering characteristics
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol 42, n° 4, pp 722 - 731, April 2004.

S. GUILLASO, A. REIGBER, L. FERRO-FAMIL, E. POTTIER
Range resolution improvement of airborne SAR images
IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, Vol 3, n° 1, pp 135 - 139, January 2006

J.S. LEE, M.R. GRUNES, E. POTTIER, L. FERRO-FAMIL
Scattering-model-based speckle filtering of polarimetric SAR data
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol 44, n° 1, pp 176 - 187, January 2006.

C. DAHON, L. FERRO-FAMIL, C. TITIN-SCHNAIDER, E. POTTIER
Computing the double bounce reflection coherent effect in an incoherent electromagnetic scattering model
IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, Vol 3, n°2, pp 241-245, April 2006.

O. D'HONDT, L. FERRO-FAMIL, E. POTTIER
Nonstationary Spatial Texture Estimation Applied to Adaptive Speckle Reduction of SAR Data
IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, Vol 3, n°4, pp 476-480, October 2006.

C. LOPEZ, E. POTTIER
On the Extension of Multidimensional Speckle Noise Model From Single-Look to Multilook SAR Imagery
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol 45, n° 2, pp 305 - 320, February 2007.

O. D'HONDT, C. LOPEZ, L. FERRO-FAMIL, E. POTTIER
Spatially Nonstationary Anisotropic Texture Analysis in SAR Images
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol 45, n° 12, pp 3905 -3918, December 2007.

P. LEDUCQ, L. FERRO-FAMIL, E. POTTIER
Matching-Pursuit-Based Analysis of Moving Objects in Polarimetric SAR Images
IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, Vol 5, n°2, pp 123-127, April 2008.

N. LONGEPE, S. ALLAIN, L. FERRO-FAMIL, E. POTTIER, Y. DURAND
Snowpack characterization in mountainous regions using C-Band SAR data and a Meterological Model
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. Vol 47, n° 2, pp 406 -419, February 2009.

M-L. TRUONG-LOI, A. FREEMAN, P. DUBOIS-FERNANDEZ, E. POTTIER
Estimation of Soil Moisture and Faraday Rotation from Bare Surfaces using Compact Polarimetry
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. Vol 47, n° 11, November 2009.

G.D. DE GRANDI, J.S. LEE, D.L. SCHULER
Target Detection and Texture Segmentation in Polarimetric SAR Images Using a Wavelet Frame: Theoretical Aspects
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. Vol 45, n° 11, pp 3437-3453, November 2007.

G. VASILE, E. TROUVE, J.S. LEE, V. BUZULOLU
Intensity-driven adaptive-neighborhood technique for polarimetric and interferometric SAR parameters estimation
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. Vol 44, n° 6, pp 1609-1621, June 2006.

M.J. HILL, C.J. TICEHURST, J.S. LEE, M.R. GRUNES, G.E. DONALD, D. HENRY
Integration of optical and radar classifications for mapping pasture type in Western Australia
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. Vol 43, n° 7, pp 1665-1681, July 2005.

T.L. AINSWORTH, L. FERRO-FAMIL, J.S. LEE
Orientation angle preserving a posteriori polarimetric SAR calibration
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. Vol 44, n° 4, pp 994-1003, April 2006.

J.S. LEE, T.L. AINSWORTH, J.P. KELLY, C. LOPEZ MARTINEZ
Evaluation and Bias Removal of Multilook Effect on Entropy/Alpha/Anisotropy in Polarimetric SAR Decomposition
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. Vol 46, n° 10, pp 3039-3052, October 2008.

P.R. KERSTEN, J.S. LEE, T.L. AINSWORTH
Unsupervised classification of polarimetric synthetic aperture Radar images using fuzzy clustering and EM clustering
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. Vol 43, n° 3, pp 519-527, March 2005.

J.C. SOUYRIS, P. IMBO, R. FJORTOFT, S. MINGOT, J.S. LEE
Compact polarimetry based on symmetry properties of geophysical media: the p/4 mode
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. Vol 43, n° 3, pp 634-646, March 2005.

J.S. LEE, E. KROGAGER, T.L. AINSWORTH, W.M. BOERNER
Polarimetric Analysis of Radar Signature of a Manmade Structure
IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters. Vol 3, n° 4, pp 555-559, October 2006.

J.S. LEE, J.H. WEN, T.L. AINSWORTH, K.S. CHEN, A.J. CHEN
Improved Sigma Filter for Speckle Filtering of SAR Imagery
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. Vol 47, n° 1, pp 202-213, January 2009.

M.E. NORD, T.L. AINSWORTH, J.S. LEE, N.J.S STACY
Comparison of Compact Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar Modes
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. Vol 47, n° 1, pp 174-188, January 2009.